Petra, which in Greek means "rock", which is an archaeological and historical city carved in rock. It is located in Ma'an Governorate in the south of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 240 km south of the Jordanian capital Amman, as it was called "the pink city" in relation to the colors of its rocks, and was chosen To be one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007.
Petra is a symbol of Jordan, and the most attractive place for tourists in the Kingdom. The city celebrated the number one million visitor for the first time in the history of Jordanian tourism, in the month of November 2019.
History of Petra:
The Nabataeans carved Petra in the rock 2000 years ago and took it as their capital, and it had a distinguished position because of its location on the Silk Road, and the medieval civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Palestine, which made the Nabatean state an economic and commercial place among civilizations.
The site of Petra was not discovered by the West throughout the Ottoman period, until it was rediscovered by Swiss orientalist Johann Ludwig Berckhart in 1812. The city of Petra was included on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.

The most famous archaeological sites in Petra:

✨ Siq:

It is a rocky crevice twisting length of about 1200 meters and a width ranging from 3 - 12 meters, and its height reaches about 80 meters, and its aesthetic appears in the appearance of the treasury at the end of the Siq, which is the main road leading to the city of Petra.
Water channels and lateral dams can be seen in the Siq, which were erected at the place of the original Nabataean dams, to prevent water from flowing into the Siq, reserving and benefiting from it. The sides of the Siq are decorated with Nabataean sculptures and statues of deities and their niches are located near these canals, due to the Nabataeans' belief and their strong belief that the waters are holy.

✨The Safe or Al-Khazneh:

The building is considered to be the most famous and important landmark of Petra, as the Nabataeans carefully selected its location as the first landmark facing the visitor after entering the city. It was named after the local Bedouins previously believed that the jar at the top of the façade contained a treasure, but in reality it is a royal shrine.

The front of the safe consists of two floors, 25 meters wide and 39 meters high. The basement consists of six columns along the front façade, standing above a terrace in the center of the staircase, the length of the column in the basement is about 12 meters, and in the upper floor is 9 meters high, and the height of the jar at the top is about 3.5 meters.
Some archaeologists believe that it was built as a temple or a place to store documents, but recent archaeological excavations in Petra proved the presence of tombs beneath the courtyard of the Khazna building.

✨ The Monastery or "Al-Dayr":

It is one of the important buildings in the Petra region, and dates back to the first half of the first century BC, and consists of two floors, and it is believed that it contained statues of mobile crowns, which is larger than the building of the Treasury.
It is believed that the facade of the monastery building was transformed into a monastery for monks during the rule of the Byzantine state in the Levant, due to the presence of traces of crosses carved into the rock in the only room in the basement of the facade.

✨ Petra Theater:

One of the largest buildings in Petra, and was built in the first century AD in the form of a semicircle with a diameter of 95 meters, and a height of 23 meters. It is carved in the rock with the exception of the front part of it is built, and the theater accommodates 7-10 thousand viewers.
The orchestra's square has been cut with rock, and the two side aisles of the plaza are also cut into the rock and two stone-shaped arched roofs.

✨ Girl's Palace or "Qasr Al-Bent":

It is a Nabati temple from the first century BC, and its importance lies in being one of the few Petra buildings that withstood the earthquake, due to the way it was built using Madamek in which juniper wood was placed, which made its walls more voluntary to move during the earthquakes.
✨ The Court:

It is a building consisting of a group of important facades, the first of which is the "Tomb of the Jar", and dates back to the first half of the first century AD, and is located on the opposite side of the Nabati Amphitheater.

It is combined with burial chambers, part of which is sculpted and the other is built, and there is a ladder that ascends to the burial yard at the top.

The graves were at the back of the burial, but it was converted into a church in the fifth century CE. There is Greek writing that states that the place was converted to a church in 447 and written on the left back of the wall.

✨ The Great Temple:

It is the largest building in Petra, and this temple is located on the south side of the baptized street. The building consists of a main entrance linking the street, then a sacred square.

Check out the video on How to make Petra in Quilling art ✋

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